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Definitions of terms between 'single quotation marks' are given in a Technical Note to the relevant item.

Definitions of terms between "double quotation marks" are as follows:

N.B.:   Category references are given in brackets after the defined term.

"Accuracy" (2 3 6 7 8), usually measured in terms of inaccuracy, means the maximum deviation, positive or negative, of an indicated value from an accepted standard or true value.

"Active flight control systems" (7) are systems that function to prevent undesirable "aircraft" and missile motions or structural loads by autonomously processing outputs from multiple sensors and then providing necessary preventive commands to effect automatic control.

"Active pixel" (6 8) is a minimum (single) element of the solid state array which has a photoelectric transfer function when exposed to light (electromagnetic) radiation.

"Adapted for use in war" (1) means any modification or selection (such as altering purity, shelf life, virulence, dissemination characteristics, or resistance to UV radiation) designed to increase the effectiveness in producing casualties in humans or animals, degrading equipment or damaging crops or the environment.

"Adjusted Peak Performance" (4) is an adjusted peak rate at which "digital computers" perform 64-bit or larger floating point additions and multiplications, and is expressed in Weighted TeraFLOPS (WT) with units of 1012 adjusted floating point operations per second.

"Aircraft" (1 7 9) means a fixed wing, swivel wing, rotary wing (helicopter), tilt rotor or tilt-wing airborne vehicle.

"Airship" (9) means a power-driven airborne vehicle that is kept buoyant by a body of gas (usually helium, formerly hydrogen) which is lighter than air.

"All compensations available" (2) means after all feasible measures available to the manufacturer to minimise all systematic positioning errors for the particular machine-tool model or measuring errors for the particular coordinate measuring machine are considered.

"Allocated by the ITU" (3 5) means the allocation of frequency bands according to the current edition of the ITU Radio Regulations for primary, permitted and secondary services.

"Angular position deviation" (2) means the maximum difference between angular position and the actual, very accurately measured angular position after the workpiece mount of the table has been turned out of its initial position

"Angle random walk" (7) means the angular error build up with time that is due to white noise in angular rate. (IEEE STD 528-2001)

"APP" (4) is equivalent to "Adjusted Peak Performance".

"Asymmetric algorithm" (5) means a cryptographic algorithm using different, mathematically-related keys for encryption and decryption.

"Automatic target tracking" (6) means a processing technique that automatically determines and provides as output an extrapolated value of the most probable position of the target in real time.

"Average output power" (6) means the total "laser" output energy, in joules, divided by the period over which a series of consecutive pulses is emitted, in seconds. For a series of uniformly spaced pulses it is equal to the total "laser" output energy in a single pulse, in joules, multiplied by the pulse frequency of the "laser", in Hertz.

"Basic gate propagation delay time" (3) means the propagation delay time value corresponding to the basic gate used in a "monolithic integrated circuit". For a 'family' of "monolithic integrated circuits", this may be specified either as the propagation delay time per typical gate within the given 'family' or as the typical propagation delay time per gate within the given 'family'.

"Basic scientific research" (GTN NTN) means experimental or theoretical work undertaken principally to acquire new knowledge of the fundamental principles of phenomena or observable facts, not primarily directed towards a specific practical aim or objective.

"Bias" (accelerometer) (7) means the average over a specified time of accelerometer output, measured at specified operating conditions, that has no correlation with input acceleration or rotation. "Bias" is expressed in g or in metres per second squared (g or m/s2). (IEEE Std 528-2001) (Micro g equals 1 × 10– 6 g).

"Bias" (gyro) (7) means the average over a specified time of gyro output measured at specified operating conditions that has no correlation with input rotation or acceleration. "Bias" is typically expressed in degrees per hour (deg/hr). (IEEE Std 528-2001).

"Camming" (2) means axial displacement in one revolution of the main spindle measured in a plane perpendicular to the spindle faceplate, at a point next to the circumference of the spindle faceplate (Reference: ISO 230/1 1986, paragraph 5.63).

"Carbon fibre preforms" (1) means an ordered arrangement of uncoated or coated fibres intended to constitute a framework of a part before the "matrix" is introduced to form a "composite".

"Chemical laser" (6) means a "laser" in which the excited species is produced by the output energy from a chemical reaction.

"Chemical mixture" (1) means a solid, liquid or gaseous product made up of two or more components which do not react together under the conditions under which the mixture is stored.

"Circular Error Probable" ("CEP") (7) means in a circular normal distribution, the radius of the circle containing 50 % of the individual measurements being made, or the radius of the circle within which there is a 50 % probability of being located.

"Circulation-controlled anti-torque or circulation controlled direction control systems" (7) are systems that use air blown over aerodynamic surfaces to increase or control the forces generated by the surfaces.

"Civil aircraft" (1 3 4 7) means those "aircraft" listed by designation in published airworthiness certification lists by the civil aviation authorities of one or more EU Member States or Wassenaar Arrangement Participating States to fly commercial civil internal and external routes or for legitimate civil, private or business use.

"Commingled" (1) means filament to filament blending of thermoplastic fibres and reinforcement fibres in order to produce a fibre reinforcement "matrix" mix in total fibre form.

"Comminution" (1) means a process to reduce a material to particles by crushing or grinding.

"Communications channel controller" (4) means the physical interface which controls the flow of synchronous or asynchronous digital information. It is an assembly that can be integrated into computer or telecommunications equipment to provide communications access.

"Composite" (1 2 6 8 9) means a "matrix" and an additional phase or additional phases consisting of particles, whiskers, fibres or any combination thereof, present for a specific purpose or purposes.

"Compound rotary table" (2) means a table allowing the workpiece to rotate and tilt about two non-parallel axes, which can be coordinated simultaneously for "contouring control".

"III/V compounds" (3 6) means polycrystalline or binary or complex monocrystalline products consisting of elements of groups IIIA and VA of Mendeleyev's periodic classification table (e.g., gallium arsenide, gallium-aluminium arsenide, indium phosphide).

"Contouring control" (2) means two or more "numerically controlled" motions operating in accordance with instructions that specify the next required position and the required feed rates to that position. These feed rates are varied in relation to each other so that a desired contour is generated (ref. ISO/DIS 2806 — 1980).

"Critical temperature" (1 3 5) (sometimes referred to as the transition temperature) of a specific "superconductive" material means the temperature at which the material loses all resistance to the flow of direct electrical current.

"Cryptographic activation" (5) means any technique that activates or enables cryptographic capability of an item, by means of a secure mechanism implemented by the manufacturer of the item, where this mechanism is uniquely bound to any of the following:

"Cryptography" (5) means the discipline which embodies principles, means and methods for the transformation of data in order to hide its information content, prevent its undetected modification or prevent its unauthorized use. "Cryptography" is limited to the transformation of information using one or more 'secret parameters' (e.g., crypto variables) or associated key management.

"CW laser" (6) means a "laser" that produces a nominally constant output energy for greater than 0,25 seconds.

"Data-Based Referenced Navigation" ("DBRN") (7) Systems means systems which use various sources of previously measured geo-mapping data integrated to provide accurate navigation information under dynamic conditions. Data sources include bathymetric maps, stellar maps, gravity maps, magnetic maps or 3-D digital terrain maps.

"Deformable mirrors" (6) (also known as adaptive optic mirrors) means mirrors having:

"Depleted uranium" (0) means uranium depleted in the isotope 235 below that occurring in nature.

"Development" (GTN NTN All) is related to all phases prior to serial production, such as: design, design research, design analyses, design concepts, assembly and testing of prototypes, pilot production schemes, design data, process of transforming design data into a product, configuration design, integration design, layouts.

"Diffusion bonding" (1 2 9) means a solid state joining of at least two separate pieces of metals into a single piece with a joint strength equivalent to that of the weakest material, wherein the principal mechanism is interdiffusion of atoms across the interface.

"Digital computer" (4 5) means equipment which can, in the form of one or more discrete variables, perform all of the following:

"Digital transfer rate" (def) means the total bit rate of the information that is directly transferred on any type of medium.

"Direct-acting hydraulic pressing" (2) means a deformation process which uses a fluid-filled flexible bladder in direct contact with the workpiece.

"Drift rate" (gyro) (7) means the component of gyro output that is functionally independent of input rotation. It is expressed as an angular rate. (IEEE STD 528-2001).

"Effective gramme" (0 1) of "special fissile material" means:

"Electronic assembly" (2 3 4 5) means a number of electronic components (i.e., 'circuit elements', 'discrete components', integrated circuits, etc.) connected together to perform (a) specific function(s), replaceable as an entity and normally capable of being disassembled.

"Electronically steerable phased array antenna" (5 6) means an antenna which forms a beam by means of phase coupling, i.e., the beam direction is controlled by the complex excitation coefficients of the radiating elements and the direction of that beam can be varied in azimuth or in elevation, or both, by application, both in transmission and reception, of an electrical signal.

"Energetic materials" (1) means substances or mixtures that react chemically to release energy required for their intended application. "Explosives", "pyrotechnics" and "propellants" are subclasses of energetic materials.

"End-effectors" (2) means grippers, 'active tooling units' and any other tooling that is attached to the baseplate on the end of a "robot" manipulator arm.

"Equivalent Density" (6) means the mass of an optic per unit optical area projected onto the optical surface.

"Explosives" (1) means solid, liquid or gaseous substances or mixtures of substances which, in their application as primary, booster, or main charges in warheads, demolition and other applications, are required to detonate.

"FADEC Systems" (9) means Full Authority Digital Engine Control Systems — A digital electronic control system for a gas turbine engine that is able to autonomously control the engine throughout its whole operating range from demanded engine start until demanded engine shut-down, in both normal and fault conditions.

"Fibrous or filamentary materials" (0 1 8) include:

"Film type integrated circuit" (3) means an array of 'circuit elements' and metallic interconnections formed by deposition of a thick or thin film on an insulating "substrate".

"Flight control optical sensor array" (7) is a network of distributed optical sensors, using "laser" beams, to provide real-time flight control data for on-board processing.

"Flight path optimisation" (7) is a procedure that minimizes deviations from a four-dimensional (space and time) desired trajectory based on maximizing performance or effectiveness for mission tasks.

"Fly-by-light system" (7) means a primary digital flight control system employing feedback to control the aircraft during flight, where the commands to the effectors/actuators are optical signals.

"Fly-by-wire system" (7) means a primary digital flight control system employing feedback to control the aircraft during flight, where the commands to the effectors/actuators are electrical signals.

"Focal plane array" (6 8) means a linear or two-dimensional planar layer, or combination of planar layers, of individual detector elements, with or without readout electronics, which work in the focal plane.

"Fractional bandwidth" (3 5) means the "instantaneous bandwidth" divided by the centre frequency, expressed as a percentage.

"Frequency hopping" (5) means a form of "spread spectrum" in which the transmission frequency of a single communication channel is made to change by a random or pseudo-random sequence of discrete steps.

"Frequency mask trigger" (3) for "signal analysers" is a mechanism where the trigger function is able to select a frequency range to be triggered on as a subset of the acquisition bandwidth while ignoring other signals that may also be present within the same acquisition bandwidth. A "frequency mask trigger" may contain more than one independent set of limits.

"Frequency switching time" (3) means the time (i.e., delay) taken by a signal when switched from an initial specified output frequency, to arrive at or within any of the following:

"Frequency synthesiser" (3) means any kind of frequency source, regardless of the actual technique used, providing a multiplicity of simultaneous or alternative output frequencies, from one or more outputs, controlled by, derived from or disciplined by a lesser number of standard (or master) frequencies.

"Fuel cell" (8) is an electrochemical device that converts chemical energy directly into Direct Current (DC) electricity by consuming fuel from an external source.

"Fusible" (1) means capable of being cross-linked or polymerized further (cured) by the use of heat, radiation, catalysts, etc., or that can be melted without pyrolysis (charring).

"Gas Atomisation" (1) means a process to reduce a molten stream of metal alloy to droplets of 500 micrometre diameter or less by a high pressure gas stream.

"Geographically dispersed" (6) is where each location is distant from any other more than 1 500 m in any direction. Mobile sensors are always considered "geographically dispersed".

"Guidance set" (7) means systems that integrate the process of measuring and computing a vehicles position and velocity (i.e. navigation) with that of computing and sending commands to the vehicles flight control systems to correct the trajectory.

"Hot isostatic densification" (2) means the process of pressurising a casting at temperatures exceeding 375 K (102 °C) in a closed cavity through various media (gas, liquid, solid particles, etc.) to create equal force in all directions to reduce or eliminate internal voids in the casting.

"Hybrid integrated circuit" (3) means any combination of integrated circuit(s), or integrated circuit with 'circuit elements' or 'discrete components' connected together to perform (a) specific function(s), and having all of the following characteristics:

"Image enhancement" (4) means the processing of externally derived information-bearing images by algorithms such as time compression, filtering, extraction, selection, correlation, convolution or transformations between domains (e.g., fast Fourier transform or Walsh transform). This does not include algorithms using only linear or rotational transformation of a single image, such as translation, feature extraction, registration or false coloration.

"Immunotoxin" (1) is a conjugate of one cell specific monoclonal antibody and a "toxin" or "sub-unit of toxin", that selectively affects diseased cells.

"In the public domain" (GTN NTN GSN), as it applies herein, means "technology" or "software" which has been made available without restrictions upon its further dissemination (copyright restrictions do not remove "technology" or "software" from being "in the public domain").

"Information security" (GSN GISN 5) is all the means and functions ensuring the accessibility, confidentiality or integrity of information or communications, excluding the means and functions intended to safeguard against malfunctions. This includes "cryptography", "cryptographic activation", 'cryptanalysis', protection against compromising emanations and computer security.

"Instantaneous bandwidth" (3 5 7) means the bandwidth over which output power remains constant within 3 dB without adjustment of other operating parameters.

"Instrumented range" (6) means the specified unambiguous display range of a radar.

"Insulation" (9) is applied to the components of a rocket motor, i.e. the case, nozzle, inlets, case closures, and includes cured or semi-cured compounded rubber sheet stock containing an insulating or refractory material. It may also be incorporated as stress relief boots or flaps.

"Interior lining" (9) is suited for the bond interface between the solid propellant and the case or insulating liner. Usually a liquid polymer based dispersion of refractory or insulating materials, e.g. carbon filled hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) or other polymer with added curing agents sprayed or screeded over a case interior.

"Intrinsic Magnetic Gradiometer" (6) is a single magnetic field gradient sensing element and associated electronics the output of which is a measure of magnetic field gradient.

"Intrusion software" (4) means "software" specially designed or modified to avoid detection by 'monitoring tools', or to defeat 'protective countermeasures', of a computer or network-capable device, and performing any of the following:

"Isolated live cultures" (1) includes live cultures in dormant form and in dried preparations.

"Isostatic presses" (2) mean equipment capable of pressurising a closed cavity through various media (gas, liquid, solid particles, etc.) to create equal pressure in all directions within the cavity upon a workpiece or material.

"Laser" (0 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9) is an item that produces spatially and temporally coherent light through amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.

"Library" (1) (parametric technical database) means a collection of technical information, reference to which may enhance the performance of relevant systems, equipment or components.

"Lighter-than-air vehicles" (9) means balloons and "airships" that rely on hot air or other lighter-than-air gases such as helium or hydrogen for their lift.

"Linearity" (2) (usually measured in terms of non-linearity) means the maximum deviation of the actual characteristic (average of upscale and downscale readings), positive or negative, from a straight line so positioned as to equalise and minimise the maximum deviations.

"Local area network" (4 5) is a data communication system having all of the following characteristics:

"Magnetic Gradiometers" (6) are instruments designed to detect the spatial variation of magnetic fields from sources external to the instrument. They consist of multiple "magnetometers" and associated electronics the output of which is a measure of magnetic field gradient.

"Magnetometers" (6) are instruments designed to detect magnetic fields from sources external to the instrument. They consist of a single magnetic field sensing element and associated electronics the output of which is a measure of the magnetic field.

"Main storage" (4) means the primary storage for data or instructions for rapid access by a central processing unit. It consists of the internal storage of a "digital computer" and any hierarchical extension thereto, such as cache storage or non-sequentially accessed extended storage.

"Materials resistant to corrosion by UF6" (0) include copper, copper alloys, stainless steel, aluminium, aluminium oxide, aluminium alloys, nickel or alloys containing 60 % or more nickel by weight and fluorinated hydrocarbon polymers.

"Matrix" (1 2 8 9) means a substantially continuous phase that fills the space between particles, whiskers or fibres.

"Measurement uncertainty" (2) is the characteristic parameter which specifies in what range around the output value the correct value of the measurable variable lies with a confidence level of 95 %. It includes the uncorrected systematic deviations, the uncorrected backlash and the random deviations (ref. ISO 10360-2).

"Mechanical Alloying" (1) means an alloying process resulting from the bonding, fracturing and rebonding of elemental and master alloy powders by mechanical impact. Non-metallic particles may be incorporated in the alloy by addition of the appropriate powders.

"Melt Extraction" (1) means a process to 'solidify rapidly' and extract a ribbon-like alloy product by the insertion of a short segment of a rotating chilled block into a bath of a molten metal alloy.

"Melt Spinning" (1) means a process to 'solidify rapidly' a molten metal stream impinging upon a rotating chilled block, forming a flake, ribbon or rod-like product.

"Microcomputer microcircuit" (3) means a "monolithic integrated circuit" or "multichip integrated circuit" containing an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) capable of executing general purpose instructions from an internal storage, on data contained in the internal storage.

"Microprocessor microcircuit" (3) means a "monolithic integrated circuit" or "multichip integrated circuit" containing an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) capable of executing a series of general purpose instructions from an external storage.

"Microorganisms" (1 2) means bacteria, viruses, mycoplasms, rickettsiae, chlamydiae or fungi, whether natural, enhanced or modified, either in the form of "isolated live cultures" or as material including living material which has been deliberately inoculated or contaminated with such cultures.

"Missiles" (1 3 6 7 9) means complete rocket systems and unmanned aerial vehicle systems, capable of delivering at least 500 kg payload to a range of at least 300 km.

"Monofilament" (1) or filament is the smallest increment of fibre, usually several micrometres in diameter.

"Monolithic integrated circuit" (3) means a combination of passive or active 'circuit elements' or both which:

"Monospectral imaging sensors" (6) are capable of acquisition of imaging data from one discrete spectral band.

"Multichip integrated circuit" (3) means two or more "monolithic integrated circuits" bonded to a common "substrate".

"Multispectral imaging sensors" (6) are capable of simultaneous or serial acquisition of imaging data from two or more discrete spectral bands. Sensors having more than twenty discrete spectral bands are sometimes referred to as hyperspectral imaging sensors.

"Natural uranium" (0) means uranium containing the mixtures of isotopes occurring in nature.

"Network access controller" (4) means a physical interface to a distributed switching network. It uses a common medium which operates throughout at the same "digital transfer rate" using arbitration (e.g., token or carrier sense) for transmission. Independently from any other, it selects data packets or data groups (e.g., IEEE 802) addressed to it. It is an assembly that can be integrated into computer or telecommunications equipment to provide communications access.

"Neural computer" (4) means a computational device designed or modified to mimic the behaviour of a neuron or a collection of neurons, i.e., a computational device which is distinguished by its hardware capability to modulate the weights and numbers of the interconnections of a multiplicity of computational components based on previous data.

"Nuclear reactor" (0) means a complete reactor capable of operation so as to maintain a controlled self-sustaining fission chain reaction. A "nuclear reactor" includes all the items within or attached directly to the reactor vessel, the equipment which controls the level of power in the core, and the components which normally contain, come into direct contact with or control the primary coolant of the reactor core.

"Numerical control" (2) means the automatic control of a process performed by a device that makes use of numeric data usually introduced as the operation is in progress (ref. ISO 2382).

"Object code" (GSN) means an equipment executable form of a convenient expression of one or more processes ("source code" (source language)) which has been compiled by programming system.

"Operations, Administration or Maintenance" ("OAM") (5) means performing one or more of the following tasks:

"Optical computer" (4) means a computer designed or modified to use light to represent data and whose computational logic elements are based on directly coupled optical devices.

"Optical integrated circuit" (3) means a "monolithic integrated circuit" or a "hybrid integrated circuit", containing one or more parts designed to function as a photosensor or photoemitter or to perform (an) optical or (an) electro-optical function(s).

"Optical switching" (5) means the routing of or switching of signals in optical form without conversion to electrical signals.

"Overall current density" (3) means the total number of ampere-turns in the coil (i.e., the sum of the number of turns multiplied by the maximum current carried by each turn) divided by the total cross-section of the coil (comprising the superconducting filaments, the metallic matrix in which the superconducting filaments are embedded, the encapsulating material, any cooling channels, etc.).

"Participating state" (7 9) is a state participating in the Wassenaar Arrangement (see

"Peak power" (6) means the highest power attained in the "pulse duration".

"Personal area network" (5) means a data communication system having all of the following characteristics:

"Plasma atomisation" (1) means a process to reduce a molten stream or solid metal to droplets of 500 μm diameter or less, using plasma torches in an inert gas environment.

"Power management" (7) means changing the transmitted power of the altimeter signal so that received power at the "aircraft" altitude is always at the minimum necessary to determine the altitude.

"Previously separated" (0 1) means the application of any process intended to increase the concentration of the controlled isotope.

"Primary flight control" (7) means an "aircraft" stability or manoeuvering control using force/moment generators, i.e., aerodynamic control surfaces or propulsive thrust vectoring.

"Principal element" (4), as it applies in Category 4, is a "principal element" when its replacement value is more than 35 % of the total value of the system of which it is an element. Element value is the price paid for the element by the manufacturer of the system, or by the system integrator. Total value is the normal international selling price to unrelated parties at the point of manufacture or consolidation of shipment.

"Production" (GTN NTN All) means all production phases, such as: construction, production engineering, manufacture, integration, assembly (mounting), inspection, testing, quality assurance.

"Production equipment" (1 7 9) means tooling, templates, jigs, mandrels, moulds, dies, fixtures, alignment mechanisms, test equipment, other machinery and components therefor, limited to those specially designed or modified for "development" or for one or more phases of "production".

"Production facilities" (7 9) means "production equipment" and specially designed software therefor integrated into installations for "development" or for one or more phases of "production".

"Programme" (2 6) means a sequence of instructions to carry out a process in, or convertible into, a form executable by an electronic computer.

"Pulse compression" (6) means the coding and processing of a radar signal pulse of long time duration to one of short time duration, while maintaining the benefits of high pulse energy.

"Pulse duration" (6) is the duration of a "laser" pulse and means the time between the half-power points on the leading edge and trailing edge of an individual pulse.

"Pulsed laser" (6) means a "laser" having a "pulse duration" that is less than or equal to 0,25 seconds.

"Quantum cryptography" (5) means a family of techniques for the establishment of shared key for "cryptography" by measuring the quantum-mechanical properties of a physical system (including those physical properties explicitly governed by quantum optics, quantum field theory or quantum electrodynamics).

"Radar frequency agility" (6) means any technique which changes, in a pseudo-random sequence, the carrier frequency of a pulsed radar transmitter between pulses or between groups of pulses by an amount equal to or larger than the pulse bandwidth.

"Radar spread spectrum" (6) means any modulation technique for spreading energy originating from a signal with a relatively narrow frequency band, over a much wider band of frequencies, by using random or pseudo-random coding.

"Radiant sensitivity" (6) is Radiant sensitivity (mA/W) = 0,807 × (wavelength in nm) × Quantum Efficiency (QE).

"Real-time bandwidth" (3) for "signal analysers" is the widest frequency range for which the analyser can continuously transform time-domain data entirely into frequency-domain results, using a Fourier or other discrete time transformation that processes every incoming time point without gaps or windowing effects that causes a reduction of measured amplitude of more than 3 dB below the actual signal amplitude, while outputting or displaying the transformed data.

"Real time processing" (2 6 7) means the processing of data by a computer system providing a required level of service, as a function of available resources, within a guaranteed response time, regardless of the load of the system, when stimulated by an external event.

"Repeatability" (7) means the closeness of agreement among repeated measurements of the same variable under the same operating conditions when changes in conditions or non-operating periods occur between measurements. (Reference: IEEE STD 528-2001 (one sigma standard deviation))

"Required" (GTN 1-9), as applied to "technology", refers to only that portion of "technology" which is peculiarly responsible for achieving or extending the controlled performance levels, characteristics or functions. Such "required" "technology" may be shared by different goods.

"Resolution" (2) means the least increment of a measuring device; on digital instruments, the least significant bit (ref. ANSI B-89.1.12).

"Riot control agent" (1) means substances which, under the expected conditions of use for riot control purposes, produce rapidly in humans sensory irritation or disabling physical effects which disappear within a short time following termination of exposure.

"Robot" (2 8) means a manipulation mechanism, which may be of the continuous path or of the point-to-point variety, may use sensors, and has all the following characteristics:

"Rotary atomisation" (1) means a process to reduce a stream or pool of molten metal to droplets to a diameter of 500 micrometre or less by centrifugal force.

"Roving" (1) is a bundle (typically 12-120) of approximately parallel 'strands'.

"Run-out" (2) (out-of-true running) means radial displacement in one revolution of the main spindle measured in a plane perpendicular to the spindle axis at a point on the external or internal revolving surface to be tested (Reference: ISO 230/1 1986, paragraph 5.61).

"Scale factor" (gyro or accelerometer) (7) means the ratio of change in output to a change in the input intended to be measured. Scale factor is generally evaluated as the slope of the straight line that can be fitted by the method of least squares to input-output data obtained by varying the input cyclically over the input range.

"Settling time" (3) means the time required for the output to come within one-half bit of the final value when switching between any two levels of the converter.

"Signal analysers" (3) means apparatus capable of measuring and displaying basic properties of the single-frequency components of multi-frequency signals.

"Signal processing" (3 4 5 6) means the processing of externally derived information-bearing signals by algorithms such as time compression, filtering, extraction, selection, correlation, convolution or transformations between domains (e.g., fast Fourier transform or Walsh transform).

"Software" (GSN All) means a collection of one or more "programmes" or 'microprogrammes' fixed in any tangible medium of expression.

"Source code" (or source language) (6 7 9) is a convenient expression of one or more processes which may be turned by a programming system into equipment executable form ("object code" (or object language)).

"Spacecraft" (7 9) means active and passive satellites and space probes.

"Spacecraft bus" (9) means equipment that provides the support infrastructure of the "spacecraft" and location for the "spacecraft payload".

"Spacecraft payload" (9) means equipment, attached to the "spacecraft bus", designed to perform a mission in space (e.g., communications, observation, science).

"Space-qualified" (3 6 7) means designed, manufactured or qualified through successful testing, for operation at altitudes greater than 100 km above the surface of the Earth.

"Special fissile material" (0) means plutonium-239, uranium-233, "uranium enriched in the isotopes 235 or 233", and any material containing the foregoing.

"Specific modulus" (0 1 9) is Young's modulus in pascals, equivalent to N/m2 divided by specific weight in N/m3, measured at a temperature of (296 ± 2) K ((23 ± 2) °C) and a relative humidity of (50 ± 5) %.

"Specific tensile strength" (0 1 9) is ultimate tensile strength in pascals, equivalent to N/m2 divided by specific weight in N/m3, measured at a temperature of (296 ± 2) K ((23 ± 2) °C) and a relative humidity of (50 ± 5) %.

"Spinning mass gyros" (7) means gyros which use a continually rotating mass to sense angular motion.

"Splat Quenching" (1) means a process to 'solidify rapidly' a molten metal stream impinging upon a chilled block, forming a flake-like product.

"Spread spectrum" (5) means the technique whereby energy in a relatively narrow-band communication channel is spread over a much wider energy spectrum.

"Spread spectrum radar" (6) — see "Radar spread spectrum".

"Stability" (7) means the standard deviation (1 sigma) of the variation of a particular parameter from its calibrated value measured under stable temperature conditions. This can be expressed as a function of time.

"States (not) Party to the Chemical Weapon Convention" (1) are those states for which the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons has (not) entered into force. (See

"Substrate" (3) means a sheet of base material with or without an interconnection pattern and on which or within which 'discrete components' or integrated circuits or both can be located.

"Substrate blanks" (3 6) means monolithic compounds with dimensions suitable for the production of optical elements such as mirrors or optical windows.

"Sub-unit of toxin" (1) is a structurally and functionally discrete component of a whole "toxin".

"Superalloys" (2 9) means nickel-, cobalt- or iron-base alloys having strengths superior to any alloys in the AISI 300 series at temperatures over 922 K (649 °C) under severe environmental and operating conditions.

"Superconductive" (1 3 5 6 8) means materials, i.e., metals, alloys or compounds, which can lose all electrical resistance, i.e., which can attain infinite electrical conductivity and carry very large electrical currents without Joule heating.

"Super High Power Laser" ("SHPL") (6) means a "laser" capable of delivering (the total or any portion of) the output energy exceeding 1 kJ within 50 ms or having an average or CW power exceeding 20 kW.

"Superplastic forming" (1 2) means a deformation process using heat for metals that are normally characterised by low values of elongation (less than 20 %) at the breaking point as determined at room temperature by conventional tensile strength testing, in order to achieve elongations during processing which are at least 2 times those values.

"Symmetric algorithm" (5) means a cryptographic algorithm using an identical key for both encryption and decryption.

"Systolic array computer" (4) means a computer where the flow and modification of the data is dynamically controllable at the logic gate level by the user.

"Tape" (1) is a material constructed of interlaced or unidirectional "monofilaments", 'strands', "rovings", "tows", or "yarns", etc., usually pre-impregnated with resin.

"Technology" (GTN NTN All) means specific information necessary for the "development", "production" or "use" of goods. This information takes the form of 'technical data' or 'technical assistance'.

"Three dimensional integrated circuit" (3) means a collection of semiconductor die, integrated together, and having vias passing completely through at least one die to establish interconnections between die.

"Tilting spindle" (2) means a tool-holding spindle which alters, during the machining process, the angular position of its centre line with respect to any other axis.

"Time constant" (6) is the time taken from the application of a light stimulus for the current increment to reach a value of 1-1/e times the final value (i.e., 63 % of the final value).

"Tip shroud" (9) means a stationary ring component (solid or segmented) attached to the inner surface of the engine turbine casing or a feature at the outer tip of the turbine blade, which primarily provides a gas seal between the stationary and rotating components.

"Total control of flight" (7) means an automated control of "aircraft" state variables and flight path to meet mission objectives responding to real time changes in data regarding objectives, hazards or other "aircraft".

"Total digital transfer rate" (5) means the number of bits, including line coding, overhead and so forth per unit time passing between corresponding equipment in a digital transmission system.

"Tow" (1) is a bundle of "monofilaments", usually approximately parallel.

"Toxins" (1 2) means toxins in the form of deliberately isolated preparations or mixtures, no matter how produced, other than toxins present as contaminants of other materials such as pathological specimens, crops, foodstuffs or seed stocks of "microorganisms".

"Transfer laser" (6) means a "laser" in which the lasing species is excited through the transfer of energy by collision of a non-lasing atom or molecule with a lasing atom or molecule species.

"Tunable" (6) means the ability of a "laser" to produce a continuous output at all wavelengths over a range of several "laser" transitions. A line selectable "laser" produces discrete wavelengths within one "laser" transition and is not considered "tunable".

"Unidirectional positioning repeatability" (2) means the smaller of values R↑ and R↓ (forward and backward), as defined by 3.21 of ISO 230-2:2014 or national equivalents, of an individual machine tool axis.

"Unmanned Aerial Vehicle" ("UAV") (9) means any aircraft capable of initiating flight and sustaining controlled flight and navigation without any human presence on board.

"Uranium enriched in the isotopes 235 or 233" (0) means uranium containing the isotopes 235 or 233, or both, in an amount such that the abundance ratio of the sum of these isotopes to the isotope 238 is more than the ratio of the isotope 235 to the isotope 238 occurring in nature (isotopic ratio 0,71 per cent).

"Use" (GTN NTN All) means operation, installation (including on-site installation), maintenance (checking), repair, overhaul and refurbishing.

"User accessible programmability" (6) means the facility allowing a user to insert, modify or replace "programmes" by means other than:

"Vaccine" (1) is a medicinal product in a pharmaceutical formulation licensed by, or having marketing or clinical trial authorisation from, the regulatory authorities of either the country of manufacture or of use, which is intended to stimulate a protective immunological response in humans or animals in order to prevent disease in those to whom or to which it is administered.

"Vacuum Atomisation" (1) means a process to reduce a molten stream of metal to droplets of a diameter of 500 micrometre or less by the rapid evolution of a dissolved gas upon exposure to a vacuum.

"Variable geometry airfoils" (7) means the use of trailing edge flaps or tabs, or leading edge slats or pivoted nose droop, the position of which can be controlled in flight.

"Yarn" (1) is a bundle of twisted 'strands'.

General Notes

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Definition of Terms

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Reasons for Control

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CN Codes

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